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Ripple Carry Adder

Ripple Carry Adder:-

  1. A ripple carries adder is an arithmetic circuit that produces a sum of two binary numbers.
  2. It can be constructed using full adders connected in cascading order.
  3. In ripple carry adder output is known after the carry generated by the previous stage is produced.
  4. the sum of the most significant bit is only available after the carry signal has rippled through the adder from the least significant stage to the most significant stage. As a result, the final sum and carry bits will be valid after a considerable delay.

to let us say we have two- 4 digit binary number :

A and  B and their bits configuration are like:

A =a_{3}a_{2}a_{1}a_{0}

B =b_{3}b_{2}b_{1}b_{0}

 c_{0} is initial carry then 


This can be implemented using 4 full adders like this.


Problem with ripple carry adder:

  1. To start any stage you need to carry from the immediately previous stage.
  2. All full adders are not working parallelly, they need carry to work.
  3. If there are n bits the total delay = n *  full adder delay



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